Skip to main content


Showing posts from August, 2020

Iron homeostasis Part 1


Iron Homeostasis Part 2 !!! Absorption of Iron


  The word poliomyelitis originates from the Greek word “polio” meaning “grey” and “myelon” meaning “marrow.” Poliomyelitis is an exclusive human disease transmitted from a patient or a symptom-free carrier through the fecal-oral route. Polio - virus Mye- spinal cord  itis - inflammation What type of virus is Polio? Non-enveloped, positive stranded RNA virus Belongs to picornaviridae family in the genus Enterovirus species-Enterovirus C What are the serotypes of Poliovirus? 3 genetically distinct serotypes 1,2, 3 Which type of Polio is maximally associated with Paralytic poliomyelitis? Type1 poliovirus has the greatest propensity for natural poliomyelitis and type 3 poliovirus has a predilection for producing VAPP. How does transmission of Polio virus occur? By feco-oral route and during epidemics via pharyngeal transmission. What is the incubation period of poliomyelitis? Usually 8-12 days with a range of 5 to 35 days What is the pathogenesis of poliomyelitis? After inge

Human Breast MIlk

  Human milk is the best food for newborn. There is no ideal alternative composition for human milk which can be as complex in composition as breast milk and never create the whole child mother bonding unique to the process of breast feeding. Breast milk is extremely complex and highly variable biofluid that has evolved over the millenium Some terminologies EBF - Only breast milk and not even water Predominant breast feeding - Small amount of other food,water but predominantly fed breast milk Partial BF - Some breast feeding and some other feeds Token breast feeding - Mostly other feeds and sometime breast feeds Bottle-feeding - feeding from bottle even if the feed is expressed breast milk What is the composition of human breast milk? Human milk is composed of 87% of water, 4% fat, 7% carbohydrate and 1 % protein. Fat and carbohydrate form 50 and 40% of total energy sources. In addition to that mother's milk is composed of lots of other vitamins and minerals. What is f

Spinal muscular atrophy

What type of disease is SMN? It is a degenerative disorder of spinal motor neuron. What causes SMN?   Homozygous mutation of SMN1 gene on exon 7 of chromosome 7 AR and X linked are also present but rare What is the most common casue of infant mortality among AR disorders? Spinal Muscular atrophy Which is the most prevalent AR disorder at birth? Cystic Fibrosis f/b SMA What is the function of SMN1? SMN protein appears to play a role in mRNA synthesis in motor neurons and also may inhibit apoptosis. What determines the activity of SMN1 gene & phenotypic expression of SMA? Modifying gene called SMN2 Loss of the SMN1 protein is partially compensated by SMN2 protein synthesis, a mechanism that explains some but not all of the phenotypic variability in patients with SMA. Disease severity in SMA generally correlates inversely with SMN2 copy number, which varies from 0 to 8 in the normal population, and to a lesser degree with the level of SMN protein .  The p