Why not syndrome and why association?

VATER or VACTERL is not a syndrome as there is a no single pathological cause responsible for the common incidence.

Components of VACTERL are

V - Vertebral anomalies

occur in 80 t0 85% cases - hemivertebrae or hypoplastic vertebrae


A - Anal atresia or imperforate anus



occur in 50-55% cases

C - cardiac malformations

occur in 75% cases

VSD, ASD and ToF are common



TE - tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia

occur in 70% cases


Renal anomalies

renal anomalies occur in 50% cases like agenesis or dysgenesis, single umbilical artery can also occur

Limb anomalies

Radial anomalies like radial aplasia, hypoplastic thumbs can occur. Syndactyly, polydactyly can also occur.

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